Volume 32, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2019


Effect of Emulsifying Petroleum Derivatives, Water Deficit Treatment and Emitters Discharge on Dry Weight, Grain yield and Water use Efficiency of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

Wisam B. Hasan; Ali H. Dheyab; Nihad Sh. Sultan

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2019.160137

A field experiment was conducted in Qurnah district, Basrah province on clay soil to study the effect of six treatments of emulsifying petroleum derivatives with irrigation water by using emulsifying agent adding directly to soil surface, gas oil with two ratios of 0.3% (g3) and 0.5% (g5) w/w of soil dry weight, two admixture treatments of fuel oil and gas oil (1:1) with two ratio 0.3%(go3) and 0.5% (go5), fuel oil 0.3% (o3) and control treatment 0% (c) without any addition. The effect of water deficit factor also studied with two levels 0.85 (w1) and 0.65 (w2) of available water by using drip irrigation with two emitters; low discharge 5 Lhr-1 (Ld) and high discharge 15Lhr-1(Hd). The results showed that all emulsified derivative conditioners significantly increased  dry weight, grain yield and water use efficiency calculated for dry weight WUE (d) and grain WUE (g) of sunflower compared with control treatment, especially at g5 and go5 treatments which recorded the highest values. Soil capability for saving water and available water increased as a result of the addition of emulsified oil derivatives, which contributed to increase the interval time between irrigation periods and reduce the quantity of irrigation water with less value appearing at g5 and go5 under 65% water deficit treatment by using 15 Lhr-1 emitter discharge. Increasing emitter discharge from  5 to 15 L hr -1, and increasing irrigation deficit from 0.65 to 0.85 led to increasing all growth parameters, except water use efficiency.

Comparison Study between the Field Performance of a Movable Boards and Conventional Ditch Openers in Cultivated and Uncultivated Soils, Part 3: The Specific Resistance

Shaker H. Aday; Yarub Al-muthafar

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 15-24
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2019.160138

The field performance of movable boards ditch opener (MB) and conventional ditch opener (CD) was contrasted by using a specific resistance to determine  the  optimum  performance  of  either   one   of   them.   The   comparison was conducted using three operating  depths  (30,  40  and  50cm),  three  angles  between  the  boards  of  MB  (45,  60  and  750),  one  angle  for  CD  (650)  because  its boards were fixed, three wings width  of  the  foot  of  MB  whereas,  for  CD,  one  share width  (35cm)  and  two  soil  types  (cultivated  and  uncultivated).  CD  could  not penetrate the  uncultivated  soil  more  than  25cm  so  that  there  was  one  operating  depth.  The  results  of  the  experiments  showed  that  SR  for  MB  decreased as the operating depth,  the  angle  between  the  boards  and  the  width  of the wings of the foot  in  both  soil  types  were  increased.  Specific  resistance  (SR)  for  CD  also  decreased  as  the  operating  depth  increased  in  the  cultivated  soil,    but  in  the  uncultivated  soil,  CD  could  not  penetrate  the  soil  more  than  25cm.  SR for MB was  lower  than  that  for  CD  for  all  operating  depths,  the  angle  between the boards,  the width of the wings of the foot in both soil types. SR for         MB and CD  in  the  cultivated  soil  was  low  compared  to  uncultivated  soil.  The  soil  type  decreased  SR  for  MB  more  than  the  operating  depth,  the  angle   between its boards and the width of  its  wings.  On  the  other  hand,  the  angle  between its boards reduced  SR  more  than  the  width  of  the  wings  and  the  operating depth. MB surpassed CD in giving lower SR and that means the field performance of MB was higher than that for CD.

Changes in Ear Postures of Kid Goats in Response to Ear Tagging

Nizar J. Hussein; Hoger M. Hidayet

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 25-33
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2019.160139

No study yet is undertaken to measure pain caused by ear tagging in kid goats using ear postures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of ear tagging procedure on pain in black Karadi kids using ear position and frequency of ear changes. Twenty black Karadi kids, aged 10-14 days, were used in this study. Ear postures were scored using focal sampling and recorded with instantaneous time sampling to measure the duration of each ear posture. Each kid was observed separately for 6 minutes before and 6 minutes after the ear tagging process with 30 seconds intervals. A total of 24 ear posture samples were recorded from each kid. Results revealed that Ear tagging significantly increased ears backward (P<0.01) and decreased ears plane (P<0.001). However, no significant effect of ear tagging was found on ears forward (P<0.19) and asymmetrical postures (P<0.43). In addition, number of ear posture changes was significantly (P<0.001) increased after ear tagging. It was concluded that observing ear postures of kids directly after painful husbandry procedures such as ear tagging is a reliable non-invasive method to assess pain caused by these painful methods and hence helps better understands animal welfare.

The Effect of Using Different Levels of Red Ginseng Roots Powder on some Physiological Characteristics of Japanese Quail Males (Coturnix japonica)

Khalid Al-Salhie; Abdulkarim Al- Waeli

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 34-38
DOI: 10.33762/bjas.2019.161173

The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of adding different levels of ginseng roots to the diet on some physiological characteristics of Japanese quail males. A total of 120 Japanese quail males aged one week were used in this study. The males were randomly distributed into four experimental treatments (n=30). Each treatment was replicated three times (10 individual each). Males were fed experimental diets that were formulated to contain the same components as the control diet which contained red ginseng roots powder at levels 250, 500 and 750 mg/ kg feed in other three experimental diets respectively. The results showed that the males of the fourth treatment recorded the lowest mean of the age of sexual puberty. While the highest average of sexual puberty age was recorded by the males of first treatment. On the other hand, the fourth treatment recorded the highest relative weight of testes compared with the other treatments at the age of 30 and 60 days. The results indicated that the males of the fourth treatment recorded highest Testosterone, FSH and LH levels compared with the other treatments at the age of 60 days. We can conclude from this study that the highest concentration of powder ginseng roots (750mg/kg feed) can promote the development of testes and increase testosterone, FSH and LH hormones in the serum of Japanese quail males.

Effect of IGF-1 and GH Genes Polymorphism on Weights and Body Measurements of Awassi Lambs in Different Ages

Rahman Al Qasimi; Amad Hassan; Bassam Khudair

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 39-46
DOI: 10.33762/bjas.2019.161201

The study was carried on 68 ewes of local Awassi sheep in the Al-Kafeel sheep station Karbala governorate, Iraq for the period from 1/10/2017 to 1/8/2018.Genetic analysis was carried out in the molecular genetics laboratory at the College of Agriculture / Basrah University in order to extract (DNA) and determine the genotype of the IGF-1(Insulin-like growth factor 1) and GH (Growth Hormone) genes. This study aimed to know the association between the genotype of the ewes of IGF-1 and GH genes and their relationship to the productive traits of the lambs, which included the weights of lambs from birth to weaning and body measurements, Three of the genotypes for IGF-1 were revealed AG, GC, CC and two for GH CT, TC . The effect of IGF-1 genotypes was significant (P<0.05) on weights of lambs at weaning, age 6 months and some body measurements with superior genotype GC. The genotypes of GH had a significant effect on the weight of the lambs at birth by CT superiority. While the weights of weaning, six months and body measurements were not significantly affected by different genotypes.

First Record of Six Myxosporean Species (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) in Iraq from Gills of the Mugilid Fish Planiliza abu (Heckel, 1843)

Kefah Abdul-Ameer; Fatima Atwan

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 47-53
DOI: 10.33762/bjas.2019.161202

Sampling of Planiliza abu specimens were done from July 2015 until the end of March 2016, a total of 118 specimens were collected weekly from Tigris River near Al-Graiat region in Baghdad province. The examination of gills of these fishes showed the occurrence of six myxosporean species which were documented for the first time in Iraq. These included: Myxobilatus baicalensis (Dogiel, 1957), Myxobolus bizerti Bahri & Marques, 1996, M. branchialis (Markevich, 1932), M. chuatsi (Dogiel &Akhmerov in Akhmerov, 1960), M. dermatobius (Ishii, 1916) and M. niei Shul'man, 1962. The description and measurements of these parasites were given as well as their illustrations.

Performance of Karadi Lambs Fed White or Black Whole Barley Grain for Different Fattening Periods

Chnoor Karym; Goran Karim

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 54-61
DOI: 10.33762/bjas.2019.161203

Feeding on white or black whole barley grain and fattening period’s effect on the body weight and measurements, as well as carcass quality of Karadi male lambs was investigated in this study. A total of sixty Karadi male lambs aged six month-old was randomly allocated to two feeding systems (white or black barley grain) for four periods of experimental fattening trial (each period was one month). Body weights as well as total body gain for lambs fed white barley were significantly (P<0.05) higher than lambs fed black barley during experimental periods. Feeding white barley significantly (P<0.05) increased body length at eight-month (second period), nine month (third period) and final weight (fourth period) compared to black barley. Moreover, height at withers and heart girth showed significant differences at the final period (age of 10th months). Result showed a high interaction between fattening periods and feeding regimes on the length of body, wither height and the girth of heart. This may indicate that lambs at different experimental periods responded differently to type of barley. It is concluded that body weights, total body gain and body measurements for lambs fed white barley were significantly higher than lambs fed black barley.

Experimental infection of native chicken with cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Acari: Ixodidae)

Bahzad Mustafa

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 62-67
DOI: 10.33762/bjas.2019.161204

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus is considered as one of the most widespread tick species of the world on several host including cattle. The current study has been conducted to evaluated infestation ability of larval R. annulatus on chicken growth and development, Indicated very few larvae quested or fed on indigenous adult chickens when comparison with the number of larvae which used in this study, and that the larval and nymph feeding period of these ticks was very long. The number of larvae feeding shows in hollows wings, while the number of feeding nymph investigate on head, wings and above of thigh, both larvae and nymph described on the same individual adult chicken, the engorged adult female not observed while the adult male notice on chickens. Designated the weight of feeding larvae and nymphs stage is 0.32±0.04 mg and nymph’s 2.73±1.22 mg. The weight of larvae and nymph stage under mattress and feeder’s chicken 0.27±0.21 and 2.52±1.75 mg respectively, shows not significantly when compared between the weight of feeding on chickens and the weight under mattress and feeder’s chicken by larvae and nymphs stage at (P < 0.05) values according chi-square. Experimental study shows not transmissions pathogens from incubating larvae, which got from engorged female infested with Babesia spp., to adult chickens when examined their blood by Giemsa stain.

Mechanical Properties of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Edible Films

Safaa Laith; Alaa Al-Hashimi

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 68-78
DOI: 10.33762/bjas.2019.161205

This study was conducted to extract cellulose and synthesis carboxymethyl cellulose from flour bran. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR) was used to confirm the existent of the carboxymethyl group. The sample edible films were prepared using 1, 2, 3, and 4 % CMC, and two types of plasticizers glycerol and
sorbitol, (20, 40 and 60) %. Their qualitative, mechanical, reservation and thermal characteristics were studied. Tensile strength ranged 28-51.3 MPa and elongation percentage ranged between 65.5-91.0 %. The thickness of simple cellulose films were 0.018-0.078 mm. The values of solubility (19.05-36.31%) and the permeability values of simple cellulose film increased with the increasing of the plasticized ratio. The highest permeability was 11.99 g.mm/m2.h.kp at 60% glycerol and thermogravimetric analysis for some simple cellulose film plasticized by glycerol were 135, 146.29, 125 and123.23° C.

Effect of Different Level of β-glucan extracted from Baker's Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Barley Bran in the Physicochemical Properties of Fish Patties at Cooling Storage Periods

Shaymaa Al-Jumaiee; Khadeeja Al- Hussainy; Alaa Al-Manhel

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 79-87
DOI: 10.33762/bjas.2019.161200

β-glucan was extracted from Baker's Yeast of and barley bran using the conventional classical method and the hot water method respectively. The yield of β- glucan of Baker's Yeast and barley bran were (5.95 and 5.18) % respectively. with significant differences at the probability at the level of 0.05. β-glucan which extracted from two sources added were to fish patties at different levels (0.0 ,0.1, 0.3 ,0.5, and 1) g / 25g, and the patties were stored at 4±2 ̊ C up to for 14 days. The results showed that the values of pH and water holding capacity of patties treated with β-glucan of yeast were lowest than those of patties treated with β-glucan of barley bran. In contrast, the values of peroxide, acidity values, and the percentage of free fatty acids of the patties treated with β-glucan of yeast were found to be higher than those in the patties treated with β-glucan extracted from barley bran.