About Journal

Scientific journal issued by the College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, which publishes the results of original research and articles published papers in both Arabic and English in the fields of Animal Resources, Fisheries and Marine Resources, Food Science, Horticulture and Landscaping, plant protection, Soil and Water Sciences, Field Crops, Agricultural Machinery and Biology. The BJAS Journal follows the policy of the open access (Open Access). All the articles are located permanently and free of charge at once after the issue’s publication. The full textual access to the Journal’s...
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Journal Information

Publisher: Basrah University , College of Agriculture

Email:  bjas@uobasrah.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Asaad R. Saeed

Editor-in-chief: Assistant Professor Dr. Atheer H. Ali

Print ISSN: 1814-5868

Online ISSN: 2520-0860

Effect of Emulsifying Petroleum Derivatives, Water Deficit Treatment and Emitters Discharge on Dry Weight, Grain yield and Water use Efficiency of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

Wisam B. Hasan; Ali H. Dheyab; Nihad Sh. Sultan

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2019.160137

A field experiment was conducted in Qurnah district, Basrah province on clay soil to study the effect of six treatments of emulsifying petroleum derivatives with irrigation water by using emulsifying agent adding directly to soil surface, gas oil with two ratios of 0.3% (g3) and 0.5% (g5) w/w of soil dry weight, two admixture treatments of fuel oil and gas oil (1:1) with two ratio 0.3%(go3) and 0.5% (go5), fuel oil 0.3% (o3) and control treatment 0% (c) without any addition. The effect of water deficit factor also studied with two levels 0.85 (w1) and 0.65 (w2) of available water by using drip irrigation with two emitters; low discharge 5 Lhr-1 (Ld) and high discharge 15Lhr-1(Hd). The results showed that all emulsified derivative conditioners significantly increased  dry weight, grain yield and water use efficiency calculated for dry weight WUE (d) and grain WUE (g) of sunflower compared with control treatment, especially at g5 and go5 treatments which recorded the highest values. Soil capability for saving water and available water increased as a result of the addition of emulsified oil derivatives, which contributed to increase the interval time between irrigation periods and reduce the quantity of irrigation water with less value appearing at g5 and go5 under 65% water deficit treatment by using 15 Lhr-1 emitter discharge. Increasing emitter discharge from  5 to 15 L hr -1, and increasing irrigation deficit from 0.65 to 0.85 led to increasing all growth parameters, except water use efficiency.

Comparison Study between the Field Performance of a Movable Boards and Conventional Ditch Openers in Cultivated and Uncultivated Soils, Part 3: The Specific Resistance

Shaker H. Aday; Yarub Al-muthafar

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 15-24
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2019.160138

The field performance of movable boards ditch opener (MB) and conventional ditch opener (CD) was contrasted by using a specific resistance to determine  the  optimum  performance  of  either   one   of   them.   The   comparison was conducted using three operating  depths  (30,  40  and  50cm),  three  angles  between  the  boards  of  MB  (45,  60  and  750),  one  angle  for  CD  (650)  because  its boards were fixed, three wings width  of  the  foot  of  MB  whereas,  for  CD,  one  share width  (35cm)  and  two  soil  types  (cultivated  and  uncultivated).  CD  could  not penetrate the  uncultivated  soil  more  than  25cm  so  that  there  was  one  operating  depth.  The  results  of  the  experiments  showed  that  SR  for  MB  decreased as the operating depth,  the  angle  between  the  boards  and  the  width  of the wings of the foot  in  both  soil  types  were  increased.  Specific  resistance  (SR)  for  CD  also  decreased  as  the  operating  depth  increased  in  the  cultivated  soil,    but  in  the  uncultivated  soil,  CD  could  not  penetrate  the  soil  more  than  25cm.  SR for MB was  lower  than  that  for  CD  for  all  operating  depths,  the  angle  between the boards,  the width of the wings of the foot in both soil types. SR for         MB and CD  in  the  cultivated  soil  was  low  compared  to  uncultivated  soil.  The  soil  type  decreased  SR  for  MB  more  than  the  operating  depth,  the  angle   between its boards and the width of  its  wings.  On  the  other  hand,  the  angle  between its boards reduced  SR  more  than  the  width  of  the  wings  and  the  operating depth. MB surpassed CD in giving lower SR and that means the field performance of MB was higher than that for CD.

Changes in Ear Postures of Kid Goats in Response to Ear Tagging

Nizar J. Hussein; Hoger M. Hidayet

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 25-33
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2019.160139

No study yet is undertaken to measure pain caused by ear tagging in kid goats using ear postures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of ear tagging procedure on pain in black Karadi kids using ear position and frequency of ear changes. Twenty black Karadi kids, aged 10-14 days, were used in this study. Ear postures were scored using focal sampling and recorded with instantaneous time sampling to measure the duration of each ear posture. Each kid was observed separately for 6 minutes before and 6 minutes after the ear tagging process with 30 seconds intervals. A total of 24 ear posture samples were recorded from each kid. Results revealed that Ear tagging significantly increased ears backward (P<0.01) and decreased ears plane (P<0.001). However, no significant effect of ear tagging was found on ears forward (P<0.19) and asymmetrical postures (P<0.43). In addition, number of ear posture changes was significantly (P<0.001) increased after ear tagging. It was concluded that observing ear postures of kids directly after painful husbandry procedures such as ear tagging is a reliable non-invasive method to assess pain caused by these painful methods and hence helps better understands animal welfare.

The Effect of Using Different Levels of Red Ginseng Roots Powder on some Physiological Characteristics of Japanese Quail Males (Coturnix japonica)

Khalid C.K. Al-Salhie; Abdulkarim M. Al- Waeli

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 34-38
DOI: 10.33762/bjas.2019.161173

The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of adding different levels of ginseng roots to the diet on some physiological characteristics of Japanese quail males. A total of 120 Japanese quail males aged one week were used in this study. The males were randomly distributed into four experimental treatments (n=30). Each treatment was replicated three times (10 individual each). Males were fed experimental diets that were formulated to contain the same components as the control diet which contained red ginseng roots powder at levels 250, 500 and 750 mg/ kg feed in other three experimental diets respectively. The results showed that the males of the fourth treatment recorded the lowest mean of the age of sexual puberty. While the highest average of sexual puberty age was recorded by the males of first treatment. On the other hand, the fourth treatment recorded the highest relative weight of testes compared with the other treatments at the age of 30 and 60 days. The results indicated that the males of the fourth treatment recorded highest Testosterone, FSH and LH levels compared with the other treatments at the age of 60 days. We can conclude from this study that the highest concentration of powder ginseng roots (750mg/kg feed) can promote the development of testes and increase testosterone, FSH and LH hormones in the serum of Japanese quail males.

Effect of IGF-1 and GH Genes Polymorphism on Weights and Body Measurements of Awassi Lambs in Different Ages

Rahman H. Al Qasimi; Amad F. Hassan; Bassam Y. Khudair

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 39-46
DOI: 10.33762/bjas.2019.161201

The study was carried on 68 ewes of local Awassi sheep in the Al-Kafeel sheep station Karbala governorate, Iraq for the period from 1/10/2017 to 1/8/2018.Genetic analysis was carried out in the molecular genetics laboratory at the College of Agriculture / Basrah University in order to extract (DNA) and determine the genotype of the IGF-1(Insulin-like growth factor 1) and GH (Growth Hormone) genes. This study aimed to know the association between the genotype of the ewes of IGF-1 and GH genes and their relationship to the productive traits of the lambs, which included the weights of lambs from birth to weaning and body measurements, Three of the genotypes for IGF-1 were revealed AG, GC, CC and two for GH CT, TC . The effect of IGF-1 genotypes was significant (P<0.05) on weights of lambs at weaning, age 6 months and some body measurements with superior genotype GC. The genotypes of GH had a significant effect on the weight of the lambs at birth by CT superiority. While the weights of weaning, six months and body measurements were not significantly affected by different genotypes.

First Record of Six Myxosporean Species (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) in Iraq from Gills of the Mugilid Fish Planiliza abu (Heckel, 1843)

Kefah N. Abdul-Ameer; Fatima K. Atwan

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 47-53
DOI: 10.33762/bjas.2019.161202

Sampling of Planiliza abu specimens were done from July 2015 until the end of March 2016, a total of 118 specimens were collected weekly from Tigris River near Al-Graiat region in Baghdad province. The examination of gills of these fishes showed the occurrence of six myxosporean species which were documented for the first time in Iraq. These included: Myxobilatus baicalensis (Dogiel, 1957), Myxobolus bizerti Bahri & Marques, 1996, M. branchialis (Markevich, 1932), M. chuatsi (Dogiel &Akhmerov in Akhmerov, 1960), M. dermatobius (Ishii, 1916) and M. niei Shul'man, 1962. The description and measurements of these parasites were given as well as their illustrations.

Performance of Karadi Lambs Fed White or Black Whole Barley Grain for Different Fattening Periods

Chnoor M. Karym; Goran M. Karim

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 54-61
DOI: 10.33762/bjas.2019.161203

Feeding on white or black whole barley grain and fattening period’s effect on the body weight and measurements, as well as carcass quality of Karadi male lambs was investigated in this study. A total of sixty Karadi male lambs aged six month-old was randomly allocated to two feeding systems (white or black barley grain) for four periods of experimental fattening trial (each period was one month). Body weights as well as total body gain for lambs fed white barley were significantly (P<0.05) higher than lambs fed black barley during experimental periods. Feeding white barley significantly (P<0.05) increased body length at eight-month (second period), nine month (third period) and final weight (fourth period) compared to black barley. Moreover, height at withers and heart girth showed significant differences at the final period (age of 10th months). Result showed a high interaction between fattening periods and feeding regimes on the length of body, wither height and the girth of heart. This may indicate that lambs at different experimental periods responded differently to type of barley. It is concluded that body weights, total body gain and body measurements for lambs fed white barley were significantly higher than lambs fed black barley.

Experimental infection of native chicken with cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Acari: Ixodidae)

Bahzad H. S. Mustafa

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 62-67
DOI: 10.33762/bjas.2019.161204

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus is considered as one of the most widespread tick species of the world on several host including cattle. The current study has been conducted to evaluated infestation ability of larval R. annulatus on chicken growth and development, Indicated very few larvae quested or fed on indigenous adult chickens when comparison with the number of larvae which used in this study, and that the larval and nymph feeding period of these ticks was very long. The number of larvae feeding shows in hollows wings, while the number of feeding nymph investigate on head, wings and above of thigh, both larvae and nymph described on the same individual adult chicken, the engorged adult female not observed while the adult male notice on chickens. Designated the weight of feeding larvae and nymphs stage is 0.32±0.04 mg and nymph’s 2.73±1.22 mg. The weight of larvae and nymph stage under mattress and feeder’s chicken 0.27±0.21 and 2.52±1.75 mg respectively, shows not significantly when compared between the weight of feeding on chickens and the weight under mattress and feeder’s chicken by larvae and nymphs stage at (P < 0.05) values according chi-square. Experimental study shows not transmissions pathogens from incubating larvae, which got from engorged female infested with Babesia spp., to adult chickens when examined their blood by Giemsa stain.

Mechanical Properties of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Edible Films

Safaa Laith; Alaa G. Al-Hashimi

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 68-78
DOI: 10.33762/bjas.2019.161205

This study was conducted to extract cellulose and synthesis carboxymethyl cellulose from flour bran. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR) was used to confirm the existent of the carboxymethyl group. The sample edible films were prepared using 1, 2, 3, and 4 % CMC, and two types of plasticizers glycerol and
sorbitol, (20, 40 and 60) %. Their qualitative, mechanical, reservation and thermal characteristics were studied. Tensile strength ranged 28-51.3 MPa and elongation percentage ranged between 65.5-91.0 %. The thickness of simple cellulose films were 0.018-0.078 mm. The values of solubility (19.05-36.31%) and the permeability values of simple cellulose film increased with the increasing of the plasticized ratio. The highest permeability was 11.99 g.mm/m2.h.kp at 60% glycerol and thermogravimetric analysis for some simple cellulose film plasticized by glycerol were 135, 146.29, 125 and123.23° C.

Effect of Different Level of β-glucan extracted from Baker's Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Barley Bran in the Physicochemical Properties of Fish Patties at Cooling Storage Periods

Shaymaa Al-Jumaiee; Khadeeja S. J. Al- Hussainy; Alaa J. A. Al-Manhel

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 79-87
DOI: 10.33762/bjas.2019.161200

β-glucan was extracted from Baker's Yeast of and barley bran using the conventional classical method and the hot water method respectively. The yield of β- glucan of Baker's Yeast and barley bran were (5.95 and 5.18) % respectively. with significant differences at the probability at the level of 0.05. β-glucan which extracted from two sources added were to fish patties at different levels (0.0 ,0.1, 0.3 ,0.5, and 1) g / 25g, and the patties were stored at 4±2 ̊ C up to for 14 days. The results showed that the values of pH and water holding capacity of patties treated with β-glucan of yeast were lowest than those of patties treated with β-glucan of barley bran. In contrast, the values of peroxide, acidity values, and the percentage of free fatty acids of the patties treated with β-glucan of yeast were found to be higher than those in the patties treated with β-glucan extracted from barley bran.

Structural Diversity of Fish Assemblage in the Southern Sector of Main Outfall Drains northwest of Basrah, Iraq

Abdul Hussein J. Abdullah; Rafaa A. Faris

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2018.160117

Fish assemblage was studied for a first time in the Southern part of Main Outfall Drain, in the Al-Kaii bridge region, northwest Basrah Iraq in the Al-Kaii bridge region. The study was conducted during the period from May 2016 to April 2017. Many types of fishing nets were used to collect the samples. Water temperature ranged from 14º  C in February 2017 to 30º  C in July and August 2016, while salinity ranged from   9 PSU in April 2017 to 42 PSU in December 2016. A total of 6161 individuals of fishes were caught represented 21 fish species. Six species were freshwaters fishes; four were alien species and 15 marine species. The species Acanthurus sohal was fished for the first time from the Iraqi inland waters. The most abundant three species were Poecillia latipinnaPlaniliza subviridis and Thryssa whiteheadi formed 26.68%, 25.00% and 17.58%, respectively of the total number of samples. Values of the  diversity index varied from 1.23 in November to 2.17 in May, evenness index values fluctuated  between 0.52 in June to 0.88 in May, whereas richness index ranged from 1.14 in January 2017 to 2.02 in May. The present study concluded that there is a significant monthly fluctuation in salinity and the composition of fish community was changing continuously according to the salinity variation.

Application of Microbial Enzymes in Dairy Products: A Review

Alaa J. A. Al-Manhel

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 20-30
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2018.160125

Enzymes produced by microbial sources are biological molecules that known to catalysts biochemical reactions which roles involve in lead to stimulate the necessary chemical reactions, as well as to the formation of fermented products. Microbial protease, lipase and β-galactosidase are important examples of such interest in industrial food and dairy product. This is due to their thermoresistant, thermostability and thermoacidophilic properties. In brief, hydrolyses are the substrate which includes some enzymatic reaction that allows to avoid the health and environmental problems, and also to catalyses chemical reaction during the formation of flavor compounds or prebiotic and other products additives in the production and development of healthy dairy food products. Thus, enzymes are one of the relatively important factor that expected to be utilized in large-scale in the process of products development. This review focused on the importance and application of three major enzymes that microbial produce which  are of great interest in dairy industries and have positive impact on consumer’s health.

Extraction and Characterization of Pectin from Dragon Fruit (Hylocerens polyrhizus) Peel Using Different Concentration of Ammonium Oxalate

Alia Z. Hashim

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 12-19
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2018.160118

The study was focused on the red dragon fruit (Hylocerens polyrhizus) peel which can be used as a source of pectin .The physicochemical properties were studied moisture, protein, fat, ash, total soluble solid TSS, pH and titratable acidity TA .Using three different concentration of ammonium oxalate 0.5 ,1 ,2 gm. At pH 4.9, temperature 90 ◦C, time 90 min to extract pectin. Highest yield with about 0.5 gm. Concentration ammonium oxalate was 26.64% following 23.75%, 15.88% yields at concentration 1 and 2 gm. ammonium oxalate .There were significant differences in yields at (p< 0.05). Characterization of the extracted pectin in terms of equivalent weight, methoxyl  content, degree of esterification, an hydrouronic acid AUA, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR, viscosity, setting times were studied. Based on the value of methoxyl content 2.54% and degree esterification pectin can be categorized as low methoxyl.

Growth parameters of common carp Cyprinus carpio cultivated in semi- closed system

Majid M. Taher; Adel Y. Al-Dubakel; Sadiq J. Muhammed

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 40-47
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2018.160120

Growth parameters of common carp Cyprinus carpio were investigated in 13 plastic tanks (550 cm diameter and 130 cm depth) of semi-closed system at Abu Al- Khaseeb District, Basrah from 27 October to 17 December, 2016. Number of fishes in every tank was 1300 with an average initial weight 101.9 g. Fishes were fed at a ratio of 5% on sinking pelleted food manufactured in Basrah University factory with 25% protein ratio. Results of current study exhibited highest final weight (381.1 g) achieved by fishes reared in tank number 1 and lowest (326.3 g) in tank number 2. Average fish weight increments for 13 tanks were 248.2 g, with highest weight increment (266.5 g) achieved by fishes reared in tanks 6 and 11, while lowest (222.3 g) achieved by fishes reared in tank number 7. Result also appeared average daily growth of 4.87 g/day, with highest (5.22 g/day) achieved by fishes reared in tanks 6 and 11 and lowest (4.36 g/day) achieved by fishes reared in tank number 7. Average specific growth rate for 13 tanks was 2.44 %/day, with highest (3.10 %/day) achieved by fishes reared in tank number 3 and lowest (1.99 %/day) achieved in tank number 1. Average food conversion rate (FCR) for 13 tanks was 2.12, with highest (2.55) achieved by fishes reared in tanks number 1 and lowest (1.74) achieved by fishes reared in tank number 3.

USING PARAFFIN WAX IN IMMOBILIZATION OF PEPSIN, BROMALIN AND RENNILASE AND STUDYING THEIR PROPERTIES, AND EFFICIENCY IN SOME FOOD SYSTEM

M. A. Jasim; W. K. A. Al-Muhsin

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 152-161
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2006.57316

The study aimed to prepare some proteolytic immobilized enzymes Pepsin, bromalin, trypsin and rennilase by using paraffin wax and studying the properties and efficiency of enzmes and comparing them to those of free enzymes, and possibility of utilizing these enzymes more than once in food make up instead of free enzymes. The result were:
The percentage of immobilization were (84, 89, 90 and 83.27)% for peosin, trypsin, bromalin and rennilase. It has been noticed that storage duration had significant effect on the immobilized percentage. The free and immobilized enzymes showed propteolytic activity by (75, 69 and 85) unit and rennliase, free and immobilized, respectively. The clotting activity for free and immobilized rennilase were (1.26) unit/ml and (1) unit/ml respectively.The optimum pH values for the activity of free and immobilized enzymes were (2, 8 and 6) and (3, 8 and 6) for peosin, trypsin and bromalin respectively, while the optimum pH for clotting activity of (free and immobilized) rennilase were (5.7 and 6.5) respectively. The ideal temperature for activation of free and immobilized enzymes was (35oC) for peosin, trypsin, bromalin and rennilase. The immobilized enzymes showed decrease in their propteolytic activity through the progress storing intervals and the highest decreased was obtained in the final storing period (30 days). The highest degree of proteolysis for enzymes were at the time of 120 minutes. The immobilized enzymes (peosin, bromalin and trypsin) were used to hydrolysis egg albumin and to prepar plastiens, while rennilase enzyme was used to process white cheeses, the result of evaluation of cheese obtained using free and immobilized rennilase was hearly the same, and there was no significant differences in obtained cheese when the same piece of immobilized enzymes used for three time consecutively

DRYING OF CORN BY SOLAR ENERGY

asaad r.s.al-hilphy

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 245-255
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2010.56620

Corn was dried in an indirect locally manufactured solar dryer with natural flow . It consists of solar collector of 0.5 m2 area and 25 kg capacity drying chamber, those of which was made of wood. The results compared with those of natural sun drying in January 2007, and showed that corn could be dried by using solar energy in Basrah city. Moisture content, water activity and specific heat were reduced with increasing day hours, The average and this reduction of drying time was higher in solar dryer than using natural sun drying method and the decreasing were 45%,19.5%,45%,19.49%,26.71,13.5 respectively . The average temperature in the drying chamber was 41.85 oC and the weather temperature was 18 oC. Experimental equations were proposed to calculate corn specific heat and moisture content as well as temperature of solar drying chamber at given solar radiation intensity and weather temperature.The differences between solar dryer and natural sun drying were not significant in the heat conduction.

Performance Study of Moldboard Plow with Two Types of Disc Harrows and Their Effect on Some Soil Properties Under Different Operating Conditions

Sadiq J. Muhsin

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2017.134097

A field experiment was conducted in two different locations at Agricultural Research Station of Garmat Ali in Basrah-Iraq. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the effective field capacity, field efficiency, draft force, pulverization index (PI), soil bulk density and soil porosity for moldboard plow (primary tillage), mounted disk harrow and offset disk harrow (secondary tillage) under different operating speed (2.54 (S1), 3.84 (S2) and 5.77 (S3) km hr-1) in two different soil textures (silty loam soil and clay soil). The design of the experiment was complete randomized blocks design in factorial experiment. The results showed that the moldboard plow had high values of draft force, pulverization index (PI) and soil porosity and lower soil bulk density, effective field capacity and field efficiency than that of mounted disk harrow and offset disk harrow in both soils. The operating speed and the interaction between operating speed and implements tillage type had significantly affect (p < 0.05) on all the studied parameters. The silty loam soil achieved higher effective field capacity, field efficiency, soil porosity (low bulk density) and considerable pulverization of soil clods than that of clay soil. The results also showed that the optimal operation conditions of implements tillage were associated with high operating speed of 5.77 km hr-1 in silty loam soil especially with using the disks harrow.

EFFECT OF AQEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF NICOTIANA TABACUM AND PEGANUM HARMALA ON THE MORTALITY RATE OF EGGS AND LARVAL INSTAR OF BLOW FLY CHRYSOMYA ALBICEPS

Kadhim Saleh Al-Hadlug; Haya Abed Shaker; Nasir Al-Mansour

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 185-201
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2010.56636

Present Study was conducted to evaluate the probable effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Nicotiana tabacum L.and Peganum harmala L.on the mortality of the egg stage aswell as the larval one of the chrysomya albiceps the significant successful of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of N.tabacum comparison by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. harmala and its effect,which caused 100%, at100% conc.for all stages but reached 0% at 5% conc. by the influence of aqeous extract of P . harmala ,at 5% conc. At exposure for 24 hours. The Results of ethanolic extract and their effect on the egg and larval stage for N.tabacum and P. harmala showed that the effect of ethyl alchole extract N.tabacum was the most successful on the mortality of larval stage 5% conc.of N.tabacum caused an average mortality of 100%while it reached 0% at 5% conc. For the ethanolic extract of P. harmala and the average of mortality rate increased by the increased of conc.it reached 100% for the 1st &2nd instar respectively at the conc.100% At exposure for 24 hours.by the influence of ethanolic extract of N.tabacum .As well as immature stages mortalities were found to be directly correlated with the time of treatment to both plants .Statical results showed that the ethanolic extract of N.tabacum had asuccessful effect on mortality percentage which reached 86.61% while the lower mortality percentage reached 21.48% for the aqeous extract of P. harmala .

Bioaccumulation of Some Heavy Metals in the Tissues of Liza abu Captured from Al-Hawizeh Marsh

A.A. Hantoush; K. H. Younis; Gh. A. Al-Najare; H. T. Al-Saad

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 289-296
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2013.111354

Concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, cupper, iron, manganese and nickel were determined in four organs (skin, ovaries and muscles) of Liza abu, which belong to family of Mugilidae collected from Al-Razazah Lake. Heavy metals have been determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The fish average weight was 69.7g and the average length was 200 mm. In muscles, iron showed the highest value (91.98μg/g dry weight), while cadmium has been not detected in Atomic Absorption spectroscopy. This study showed that the concentration of heavy metals distributed in the organs was as follows: liver > gills > muscles > ovaries, while the total heavy metals concentration had been distributed as follow: iron > cupper > nickel > manganese > cobalt> cadmium.

EFFECT OF RICE RESIDUES ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLINGS GROWTH OF WHEAT (Triticum aestivum cv. IPA) AND BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare cv.Local)

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 186-202
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2006.55652

The effect of different sources of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Ember)
residues; straw, dry root, burned straw, and burned root on wheat
(Triticum aestivum cv. IPA) and barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Local)
germination and seedling growth was investigated. Extracts of residues
were used at concentrations of 1%, 2%, and 4% (w:v). Whole residues
were used at rates of 10, 20, and 40 g/kg soil. Seed germination, shoot and
root length, reduction in dry weight , chlorophyll content, and electrolyte
leakage from leaf cells expressed as injury were measured.
The results showed as the concentration of the extracts or rate of whole
residues increased, all the growth parameters studied decreased also in
both crops except injury to seedling which increased in proportional to
increasing concentrations. Ground root extracts and whole residues were
the most effective in reducing germination, root length , shoot length,
chlorophyll content and dry weight. For whole residues, burned root was
superior in increasing injury to wheat leaves while ground root was more effective in increasing injury to barley leaves. For the interaction, ground
root extract at 4% or ground root of whole residues at 40g/kg soil had the
most inhibitory effect in most cases.

FIRST RECORD OF THREE HOSTS INFECTED BY THE PLEROCERCOID OF OTOBOTHRIUM PENETRANS LINTON, 1907 (CESTODA: TRYPANORHYNCHA) IN KHOR UMMIA, ARABIAN GULF

Nadirah K. Al-Salim and Atheer H. Ali

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 310-321
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2007.56543

Three different stages in the development of the plerocercoid larvae of the trypanorhynch cestode Otobothrium penetrans Linton, 1907(two plerocerci and one post larva) were described from the various sites of needlefishes. First and second stages of plerocercoid found in the muscle, body cavity, gas bladder, kidney and some time in the heart of the yellow spot tail needlefish Strongylura strongylura, banded needlefish Strongylura leiura hound needlefish, Tylosurus crocodilus and flat needlefish Ablennes hians, while the post larva found only in intestine of S. leiura. All needlefishes except T. crocodilus consider new hosts record to Otobothrium penetrans in the world. No monthly pattern was observed either in prevalence of infection or mean of intensity except clear peak in mean intensity of infection in S. leiura during July (77) and T. crocodilus during October (75). Both the prevalence of infection and mean of intensity were increased from smallest fish length less than 200 mm until 500 mm and then the infection was decreased in the largest fish length more than 500 mm of S. strongylura.

Evaluation of Using Different Diets Color on the Performance and Some Physiological Traits of Broiler Chicks

Alfred. S. Karomy

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 97-106
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2016.120228

This study was conducted at poultry farm, Department of Animal production, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah to investigate the effect of colouring diets in production performance and some physiological traits from 15/10/2015 to 18/11/2015 two hundred and fourty one–day of broiler chicks were randomly distributed. The four experimental treatments were feed on four different colour diets each treatment had three replicate (20 birds/ per replicate). The first treatment (T1) as a control natural color diets, T2, T3, T4, 2g of yellow, red and green pigments were disolved in 10 ml distalled water/ kg diet respectively. Rusult indicated that there was a significant improvement (p<0.05) in final body weight and body weight gain and production index in green color diets and feed conversition ratio had lower significantly (p<0.05) in the some treatment as compared with others. The result showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in dressing and breast percentage, red blood cells, Hb, pcv, total protein and glucose in green diet treatment compared with others.

HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF GONADAL CYCLICAL auratus VARITIONS IN CARASSIUS

Entesar Sh. Hashem

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 82-95
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2011.57065

Seasonal variations in gonads of C. uratusa have been studied in Garmat Ali river during May 2008 - April 2009. Spermatogenesis was described as five types of testicular cells were reconeised spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes , spermatids and spermatozoa. Seven developing stages were recognized during oogenesis through histological examination of ovarian cells oogonia , chromatin nucleolar oocytes , perinucleolar oocytes,primaryvitellgenesis,secondary vitellgenesis ,tertiary vitellgenesis and hyaline oocytes .Theconclusion of using C.auratus. Appeared to be as serial spawners with long spawning season starting during March and ending until August and the male was maturd faster than female.

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